Legal and Regulatory Environment Assessment for HIV/AIDS in the Republic of Tajikistan
HIV/AIDS remains a global health emergency that requires an exceptional and comprehensive response at the global level. In addition, the HIV spread often is the cause and consequence of poverty and inequality, and the adoption of effective measures to combat HIV /AIDS are crucial for the implementation of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda2.
The Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes that the ending poverty in all its forms and manifestations, including extreme poverty, remains as the major global challenge and ending poverty is one of the prerequisites for sustainable development, given that the dignity of the human is fundamental and that the goals and objectives for sustainable development must be achieved in interests of all countries and peoples and all strata of society in a spirit that “nobody is left behind” 3. HIV/AIDS affects all regions of the world; the Caribbean is the second largest region, after sub-Saharan Africa, for the rate of the infection spread.
As per UNAIDS’ “AIDS GLOBAL UPDATE, 2016”: rates of new adult HIV infections were relatively static in Latin America and the Caribbean, western and central Europe, North America and the Middle East and North Africa, while the annual numbers of new HIV infections in eastern Europe and central Asia increased by 57%4.
Since progression of the HIV epidemic in Tajikistan, the National Government has repeatedly attempted to address this problem at legislative level, taking into account the unique ways of its transmission, as well as the novelty of the problem of HIV infection.
HIV epidemiology in Tajikistan
According to official statistics, as of January 1st, 2016, the accumulated number (since 1991) of HIV cases registered in the country was 7,709; of which 68.4% are men and 31.6% are women. From 1991 to December 2015, 1592 people living with HIV passed away due to various reasons. As of January 2016 the total number of people living with HIV in the country was 6,117, of which 76.1% are officially registered and regularly visiting outpatient departments. In recent years Tajikistan is facing a trend in increase in the number of women (both adults and children) living with HIV among new HIV cases. An increase is from 28.9% in 2011 to 40, 2% in 2015.