National Water Sector Reform Programme
Tajikistan's water sector is undergoing a reform towards Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). IWRM is a process that promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to equitably maximize economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems.
With SDC support UNDP water management programmes develop and implement water efficiency strategies at national and basin levels. The intervention strategy supports water governance and institutional reform, as well as projects to improve irrigated agriculture, rural water supply and sanitation. At the regional level, UNDP contributes to cross-border confidence building through strengthening water cooperation mechanisms in Fergana valley. Particularly, in Isfara river basin, 50 000 people from farming communities secured their agricultural livelihoods, and improved productivity for 3 600 hectares of land. That also includes 20 000 individuals from cross-border communities in Isfara river basin (12 000 from Tajik side, and 8 000 from Kyrgyz side) that secured access to irrigation water through confidence building activities and rehabilitation of irrigation systems supported by UNDP. On the policy part, the intervention support development of Water Sector Reform Strategy, regulations on division of functions and roles between ministries and agencies involved in water resources management, and plans to implement river basin management approaches on the ground.
Safe Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation
Access to safe drinking water and sanitation in rural areas is a key development challenge for Tajikistan, with only 57% of the rural population estimated to have access to safe drinking water, and fewer with access to improved sanitation. UNDP implements the project “Tajikistan Water Supply and Sanitation” (TajWSS) with SDC financial support and in partnership with Oxfam GB.
The project facilitates policy development, governance, as well as supports reforms in water supply and sanitation management. Seeking to improve access to safe drinking water in rural communities, UNDP's interventions support improvement of enabling policy environment for the subsector. Government of Switzerland has supported national efforts to develop sustainable water and sanitation systems since 1998 through UNDP over 30 000 people in rural communities have benefited from these efforts. Between periods of 2015-2017 additionally more than 5 000 people will be provided with access to safe drinking water supply and improved sanitation in Khatlon region of Tajikistan. The project's focus on this phase is to support balanced approach to tariff policy improvement and implementation, development of sanitation policy and promoting effective organizational management models for rural water supply and sanitation in Tajikistan.
Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency
For Tajikistan with plenty of water resources development of small hydropower (SHP) is a beneficial decision, in particular in remote areas where the costs of traditional power supply are high, and scarcity of electricity is heavily felt in winter. Small hydropower presents an alternative solution for remote and off-grid areas contributing to the livelihoods improvement of the local population contributing to the social and economic growth. Additional benefits from the development of small hydro power plants include increasing the reliability of electricity supply especially in winter, stimulating the local economy and creating jobs.
With UNDP/GEF support, the project «Technology Transfer and Market Development for SHP in Tajikistan» contributes at significant acceleration of development of SHP in Tajikistan by removing barriers to its up-growth, such as complicated procedures for obtaining permission for the construction of small hydropower plants (sHPP), low technical equipment of the manufacturers' outfit and spare parts, relatively low qualification of personnel in the service sector, in design and construction of sHPPs. The Project is creating an enabling legal and regulatory framework, capacity building and bringing sustainable patterns of power generation, thus substantially avoiding use of traditional biomass and fossil fuel (hydrocarbons) for energy production and meeting other energy needs.
One of the notable models that was tested and demonstrated within the project framework has been the Integrated Rural Development (IRD) model in Burunov jamoat, where the rehabilitated small hydropower plant provides electricity to 5000 people, social and economic infrastructure of the village. The model is being replicated in two other districts of Khatlon region under the cooperation framework of UNDP EEP and the Japan government funded LITACA project, thereby covering 3000 people of rural areas.
Chemical and Waste Management
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), a group of ozone-depleting chemicals, are used in a variety of applications such as refrigerants, foam-blowing agents, solvents, fire extinguishers and aerosols. In some cases, HCFCs have replaced CFCs use due to their lower ozone depleting potential (ODP). The project “Initial Implementation of Accelerated HCFC Phase-Out in the CEIT Region” (HCFC Phase-out) is a three-year project, financed by GEF, represents a package of technical assistance to help the country address HCFC related challenges and is a response to the obligations incurred by Tajikistan under the phase out schedule for HCFCs of the Montreal Protocol. Project supported establishment of two training centers at the Engineering – Pedagogical College and Refrigeration Association as well as rehabilitation of Custom's warehouse for storing seized ODS and more than 300 refrigeration technicians passed five-day refresher courses on the service delivery best practices of refrigeration equipment and air-conditioning systems', recycling, recovery and re-use of ODS.
In order to meet national legislation towards ratified country's obligations under the Montreal Protocol drafts of degrees and regulations were developed by the Inter-ministerial Task Force and submitted to the Government for review and further endorsement.
Since the early 2000s, the capital city of Dushanbe has experienced a rapid expansion in the use of private motor vehicles, along with a deterioration of public transport caused by rising personal incomes, a growing migrant population, a liberal trade policy and a neglected public transit system. This has led to a significant increase in urban air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. It is estimated that mobile sources account for 87% of total air emissions in Dushanbe. The project «Sustainable Transport Management» with UNDP/GEF support aims to reduce local and GHG emissions while improving access to and the quality of public transport services for all residents of Dushanbe.
The project transport legislation-related activities has resulted in government commitments for amending the national legislation with the purpose to consider the sustainable transport measures - priced parking, dedicated bus lanes, unified fare collection, etc.
Establishment of the modern Single Dispatcher Control Centre (SDCC) in Dushanbe city with coverage up to 5,000 public transport vehicles, including the equipping 30 buses and 30 trolley buses with GPS navigation system to be linked to the real-time information boards on 25 bus stops along Rudaki str. in Dushanbe city is the key achievement of the project.
Environment: support Civil Society Organizations
The Small Grants Programme started its operation in Tajikistan in September 2009. The programme is funded by GEF as a corporate programme and implemented by the UNDP.
The GEF Small Grants Programme embodies the very essence of sustainable development by "thinking globally-acting locally". By providing financial and technical support to projects that conserve and restore the environment while enhancing people's well-being and livelihoods, SGP demonstrates that community action can maintain the fine balance between human needs and environmental imperatives.
For the present moment GEF SGP completed 48 projects in all regions of the Republic of Tajikistan covering such thematic areas as climate change, land degradation, conservation of biodiversity, chemical waste management and international waters issues.
As a results only on climate change thematic, more than 400 energy efficient cooking stoves and tandurs were constructed under SGP funding (Nepali, Pamirian and German styles), 2,500 manuals on building energy efficiency and energy saving technologies, their use and methods of thermal insulation were developed and distributed. Moreover, more than 1,000 people have received the proper trainings and practical sessions on constructing of energy efficient stoves using locally available materials that promoted reduction on use of fire wood and coal consumption to 30%-35%.